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Hope was replaced by elation in July 1996, at the XI International Conference on AIDS, when David Ho announced that HIV could be eradicated if it was completely suppressed for 2 or 3 years. At the same time, several reports suggested that HIV could be fully suppressed by combining two NRTIs with either an NNRTI or a PI. The HAART era had begun. “We had turned directions really quickly. It was like a light switch, going from terrible pessimism to exaggerated optimism in less than a year,” says Cheever.

Figure 1. Antiretroviral Drug Approvals by Class and Date110

Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
March 19, 1987
Retrovir (AZT; zidovudine) is the first drug approved to treat AIDS
October 9, 1991
Videx (ddI; didanosine) is approved
June 19, 1992
HIVID (ddC; zalcitabine) is approved
June 24, 1994
Zerit (d4T; stavudine) is granted accelerated approval
November 20, 1995
Epivir (3TC; lamividune) is granted accelerated approval
December 17, 1998
Ziagen (abacavir) is granted accelerated approval
October 26, 2001
Viread (tenofovir) is granted accelerated approval
July 2, 2003
Emtriva (emtricitabine; FTC) is granted accelerated approval
NRTI Coformulations
September 26, 1997
Combivir (AZT and 3TC) the first coformulated anti-HIV drug, is approved
November 14, 2000
Trizivir (coformulated AZT, 3TC and abacavir) is approved
August 2, 2004
Epzicom (a coformulation of abacavir and lamivudine) is approved
August 2, 2004
Truvada (coformulated tenofovir and e mtricitabine) is approved
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
June 21, 1996
Viramune (nevirapine) is granted accelerated approval
April 4, 1997
Rescriptor (delavirdine) is granted accelerated approval
September 17, 1998
Sustiva (efavirenz) is approved
January 19, 2008
Intelence (etravirine) is granted accelerated approval
May 20, 2011
Endurant (ripilvirine) is approved
Protease Inhibitors
December 6, 1995
Invirase (saquinavir) is approved accelerated approval
March 1, 1996
Norvir (ritonavir) is approved
March 13, 1996
Indinavir (crixivan) is approved
March 14, 1997
Viracept (nelfinavir) is granted accelerated approval
April 15, 1999
Agenerase (amprenavir) is granted accelerated approval
September 15, 2000
Kaletra (lopinavir and ritonavir coformulation) is approved
June 20, 2003
Reyataz (atazanavir) is approved
June 22, 2005
Aptivus (tipranavir) is granted accelerated approval
June 23, 2006
Prezista (darunavir) is granted accelerated approval
Fusion Inhibitor
Entry Inhibitor
Integrase Inhibitor
March 15, 2003
Fuzeon (T-20; enfuvirtide) is granted accelerated approval
August 6, 2007
Selzentry (mariviroc) is approved
October 12, 2007
Isentress (raltegravir) is granted accelerated approval
One Pill, Once a Day: Coformulated Regimens
July 12, 2006
Atripla (the first fixed-dose, multiclass, single-tablet HIV regimen) is approved for use in the United States
August 10, 2011
Complera, a fixed-dose, multiclass, single-tablet HIV regimen is approved for use in the United States
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