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SPNS Initiative: Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care and Services in Jail Settings, 2007-2012


The Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care and Services in Jail Settings initiative was a five-year multi-site demonstration and evaluation of HIV service delivery interventions in correctional settings. This initiative funded 10 demonstration sites to design, implement, and evaluate innovative methods for linking people living with HIV (PLWH) in jail settings, or recently released from local jail, into community-based HIV primary care and ancillary services. Interventions included flexible case management strategies that promoted durable linkages and appropriate follow-ups as PLWH were released from jail into their local communities. Emory University School of Public Health, the Evaluation and Support Center (ESC) for this initiative, assessed the effectiveness of the interventions in providing linkages to HIV primary care services for PLWH newly released from jail, and integrating services for them within their communities' HIV care continuum. The initiative promoted greater collaboration among correctional facilities, public health agencies, and community-based organizations. Successful interventions were initiated with PLWH while they were in jail, and then coordinated upon their release.

Demonstration project grant recipients in this initiative included: AID Atlanta (GA); AIDS Care Group (Chester PA); Baystate Medical Center (Springfield, MA); Care Alliance Health Center (Cleveland, OH); Miriam Hospital (Providence, RI); New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (Rikers Island, NY); Philadelphia FIGHT (PA); University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (Chicago, IL); University of South Carolina Research Foundation (Columbia, SC); and Yale University (New Haven, CT).

More about the Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care and Services in Jail Settings initiative.

Journal Articles

Vagenas P, Zelenev A, Altice FL, Di Paola A, Jordan AO, Teixeira PA, Frew PM, Spaulding AC, & Springer SA.  HIV-infected men who have sex with men, before and after release from jail: the impact of age and race, results from a multi-site study.  AIDS Care, January 2016;  28 (1): 22-31.  PubMed Abstract

Arriola KJ, Spaulding AC, Booker CA, Williams C, Avery A, Porter NJ, Jordan AO, Loewenthal H, & Frew PM.  Understanding the relationship between social support and physical and mental well-being among jail detainees living with HIV. Journal of Health Psychology, January 2015; 20 (1): 3-12.  PubMed Abstract

Teixeira PA, Jordan AO, Zaller N, Shah D, & Venters H. Health Outcomes for HIV-Infected Persons Released From the New York City Jail System With a Transitional Care-Coordination Plan. American Journal of Public Health, February 2015; 105 (2): 351-357.  PubMed Abstract

Meyer JP, Zelenev A, Wickersham JA, Williams CT, Teixeira PA, and Altice FL. Gender Disparities in HIV Treatment Outcomes Following Release From Jail: Results From a Multicenter Study. American Journal of Public Health, March, 2014; 104 (3): 434-441. PubMed Abstract

Flanigan TP. Jails: the new frontier. HIV testing, treatment, and linkage to care after release. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S83-S85. No abstract available.

Rapp RC, Ciomcia R, Zaller N, Draine J, Ferguson A, & Cagey R. The Role of Jails in Engaging PLWHA in Care: From Jail to Community. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S89-S99 PubMed Abstract

Spaulding AC, Booker CA, Freeman SH, Ball SW, Stein MS, Jordan AO, Ahuja D, Solomon L, & Frew PM. Jails, HIV Testing, and Linkage to Care Services: An Overview of the EnhanceLink Initiative. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S100-S107. PubMed Abstract

Stein MS, Spaulding AC, Cunningham M, Messina LC, Kim BI, Chung KW, Draine J, Jordan AO, Harrison A, Avery AK, & Flanigan TP. HIV-Positive and in Jail: Race, Risk Factors, and Prior Access to Care. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S108-S117. PubMed Abstract

Chitsaz E, Meyer JP, Krishnan A, Springer SA, Marcus R, Zaller N, Jordan AO, Lincoln T, Flanigan TP, Porterfield J, & Altice FL. Contribution of substance use disorders on HIV treatment outcomes and antiretroviral medication adherence among HIV-infected persons entering jail. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S118-S127. PubMed Abstract

Booker CA, Flygare CT, Solomon L, Ball SW, Pustell MR, Bazerman LB, Simon-Levine D, Teixeira PA, Cruzado-Quinones J, Kling RN, Frew PM, Spaulding AC; and The EnhanceLink Study Group. Linkage to HIV Care for Jail Detainees: Findings From Detention to the First 30 Days After Release. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S128-S136. PubMed Abstract

Avery AK, Ciomcia RW, Lincoln T, Desbrais M, Jordan AO, Rana AI, & Machekano R. Jails as an Opportunity to Increase Engagement in HIV Care: Findings from an Observational Cross-Sectional Study. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S137-S144. PubMed Abstract

Fu JJ, Herme M, Wickersham JA, Zelenev A, Althoff A, Zaller ND, Bazazi AR, Avery AK, Porterfield J, Jordan AO, Simon-Levine D, Lyman M, & Altice FL. Understanding the revolving door: individual and structural-level predictors of recidivism among individuals with HIV leaving jail. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S145-S155. PubMed Abstract

Althoff AL, Zelenev A, Meyer JP, Fu J, Brown SE, Vagenas P, Avery AK, Cruzado-Quiñones J, Spaulding AC, & Altice FL. Correlates of Retention in HIV Care After Release from Jail: Results from a Multi-site Study. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S156-S170. PubMed Abstract

Krishnan A, Wickersham JA, Chitsaz E, Springer SA, Jordan AO, Zaller N, & Altice FL. Post-Release Substance Abuse Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Jail Detainees: Results from a Multisite Study. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S171-S180. PubMed Abstract

Zelenev A, Marcus R, Kopelev A, Cruzado-Quinones J, Spaulding A, Desabrais M, Lincoln T, & Altice FL. Patterns of homelessness and implications for HIV health after release from jail. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S181-S194. PubMed Abstract

Williams CT, Kim S, Meyer J, Spaulding A, Teixeira P, Avery A, Moore K, Altice F, Murphy-Swallow D, Simon D, Wickersham J, Ouellet LJ. Gender differences in baseline health, needs at release, and predictors of care engagement among HIV-positive clients leaving jail. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S195-S202. PubMed Abstract

Spaulding AC, Messina LC, Kim BI, Chung KW, Lincoln T, Teixeira P, Avery AK, Cunningham M, Stein MS, Ahuja D, & Flanigan TP. Planning for Success Predicts Virus Suppressed: Results of a Non-Controlled, Observational Study of Factors Associated with Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Persons Following Jail Release. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S203-S211. PubMed Abstract

Jordan AO, Cohen LR, Harriman G, Teixeira PA, Cruzado-Quinones J, & Venters H. Transitional Care Coordination in New York City Jails: Facilitating Linkages to Care for People with HIV Returning Home from Rikers Island. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S212-219. PubMed Abstract

Spaulding AC, Pinkerton SD, Superak H, Cunningham MJ, Resch S, Jordan AO, & Yang Z. Cost Analysis of Enhancing Linkages to HIV Care Following Jail: A Cost-Effective Intervention. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17 (Supplement 2): S220-S226. PubMed Abstract

de Voux A, Spaulding AC, Beckwith C, Avery A, Williams C, Messina LC, Ball S, & Altice FL. Early Identification of HIV: Empirical Support for Jail-Based Screening. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5): e37603. Epublished May 25, 2012.  Journal Full text

Chen NE, Meyer JP, Avery AK, Draine J, Flanigan TP, Lincoln T, Spaulding AC, Springer SA, & Altice FL. Adherence to HIV Treatment and Care Among Previously Homeless Jail Detainees. AIDS and Behavior, October 2013; 17(8): 2654-2666. PubMed Abstract

Draine J, Ahuja D, Altice FL, Arriola KJ, Avery AK, Beckwith CG, Booker CA, Ferguson A, Figueroa H, Lincoln T, Ouellet LJ, Porterfield J, Spaulding AC, & Tinsley MJ. Strategies to enhance linkages between care for HIV/AIDS in jail and community settings. AIDS Care, March 2011; 23 (3): 366-377. PubMed Abstract

Nunn A, Cornwall A, Fu J, Bazerman L, Loewenthal H, & Beckwith C. Linking HIV-positive Jail Inmates to Treatment, Care, and Social Services After Release: Results from a Qualitative Assessment of the COMPASS Program. Journal of Urban Health, December 2010; 87 (6): 954-968. PubMed Abstract

Spaulding AC, Arriola KJ, Hammett T, Kennedy S, & Tinsley M. Rapid HIV testing in rapidly released detainees: next steps. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, February 2009; 36 (2nd Supplement): S34-S36. Journal Fulltext

Spaulding AC, Arriola K, Ramos KL, Hammett T, Kennedy S, Norton G, & Tinsley M. Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care in Jail Settings: Report on a Consultants' Meeting Journal of Correctional Health Care, April 2007; 13 (2): 93-128. Journal Abstract